Evening to Evening Day - NOT According to Sabbath, Day of Atonement, Passover
Nothing else but the Day of Atonement and Passover (including feast of unleavened bread) and are to be observed from Evening to Evening. It is inductive reasoning that leads one to conclude that since these two appointed times are to be observed from Evening to Evening, every Day (Light) including the Sabbath (Shabbat) is to be observed from Evening to Evening. Yahuah said that we shall rest on Day (Light) 7. By inductive reasoning we'd need to conclude that since Day (Light) 7 is rest day every Day (Light) is rest Day (Light). Or since Adam had one wife every man shall have one wife. Or since the stork has some black feathers and is unclean, every bird that has some black feathers are unclean. Does that even make sense?
Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations.... Here’s an example: "Harold is a grandfather. Harold is bald. Therefore, all grandfathers are bald."
Meaning of Sabbath
The Hebrew noun Shabbath means
שַׁבָּת shabbâth, shab-bawth'; intensive from H7673; intermission, i.e (specifically) the Sabbath:—(+ every) sabbath.
which is from the root verb Shabbath
שָׁבַת shâbath, shaw-bath'; a primitive root; to repose, i.e. desist from exertion; used in many implied relations (causative, figurative or specific):—(cause to, let, make to) cease, celebrate, cause (make) to fail, keep (sabbath), suffer to be lacking, leave, put away (down), (make to) rest, rid, still, take away.
3 different Shabbaths
There is not only one type of Shabbath. Each 3 types of Shabbath is reckoned differently and is different in length.
Every 7th Day is a Shabbath for a whole Day (from Morning to Evening).
Every 9 Evening to 10th Evening of the Seventh Month is a Shabbath (Day of Atonement).
Every 7th year is a Shabbath for a full year.
Inductive reasoning could lead us to conclude the following:
Since the Day of Atonement Shabbath is from Evening to Evening every 7th Day Shabbath is also from Evening to Evening.
Since the 7th year is a Shabbath and it lasts a full year, we shall not work on the 7th Day for a full year.
Since the 7th Day Shabbath last one Day, the 7th year Shabbath last one Day, too.
As you can see, inductive reasoning leads us to massive errors! Let us not use inductive reasoning to understand Scriptures.
7th Day Shabbath
The heavens, the earth, and all their vast array were finished. On the seventh day God finished his work which he had done; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done. God blessed the seventh day, and set it apart, because he rested in it from all his work of creation which he had done.
This is the first instance we learn about the 7th Day rest. And this passage comes just after we learn about what's Day and what's Night.
God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. God saw the light, and saw that it was good. God divided the light from the darkness. God called the light “day”, and the darkness he called “night”. There was evening and there was morning, the first day.
As we can see the Day is Light and Night is Darkness. Therefore, without a doubt, a Day is from Morning to Evening and it's separate from the Night (Darkness). The Evening to Evening day reckoning concept not only does not fit into this, it's downright ridiculous as it mixed Night (Darkness) into Day (Light). There's nothing such as a 24 hour day in the Scriptures! You can read more about my analysis of this passage of Genesis where I talk about the misunderstanding in more detail.
It came to pass that, when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the doors should be shut, and commanded that they should not be opened until after the Sabbath. I set some of my servants over the gates, that no burden should be brought in on the Sabbath day.
Many quote the above passage to justify the Evening to Evening Shabbath. Yet, they read it with inductive reasoning.
A couple of points about the above verse.
- "Beginning to be dark before the Sabbath" does not necessarily mean the Sabbath starts right after it starts to get dark. The Evening of day 6 is also BEFORE the 7th day morning if you think about it. Therefore, Nehemiah's point most likely was that they shall be prepared for the Shabbath starting on Day (Light) 7 in the Morning. Since work shall be done during the Day (Light) not at Night (Darkness). He does not even consider preparing for the Shabbath at Night (Darkness). So, therefore, they shall prepare for the Shabbat on Day (Light) 6 until Evening, which ends the Day (Light) 6.
- Nehemiah the governor must be a person who respects Yahuah's instructions (Torah) and as such respects that Day means (Light) and Night means (Darkness). He says nothing should be brought in on the Sabbath DAY (LIGHT).
Inductive reasoning does not look at the context. So let us use context to see what Nehemiah believes in.
So we worked in the work: and half of them held the spears from the rising of the morning until the stars appeared. Likewise at the same time said I to the people, “Let everyone with his servant lodge within Yerushalaim, that in the night they may be a guard to us, and may labor in the day.”
Note that Nehemiah and the people were working from the rising of the morning until the stars appeared. That's like saying from Morning till Evening. He then clarifies that at night there should be a guard because that's when people should sleep so that they can get started with their work the next Day (Light).
When he says "labor in the Day" he is referring back to what he said earlier. He said that they labored "from the rising of the morning until the stars appeared". That means right there that Nehemiah reckoned the Day from Morning to Evening ("from the rising of the morning until the stars appeared").
The Jewish Encyclopedia confirms this:
"Day" (Hebrew, "yom"): In the Bible, the season of light (Gen. 1:5), lasting "from dawn (lit. "the rising of the morning") to the coming forth of the stars"
- The Jewish Encyclopedia
The Day of Atonement
Day of atonement is a Day (Light) of rest (Shabbat). As we discussed earlier there are 3 different Shabbaths and all 3 are different in length. Yahuah is the one who can determine how long a rest (Shabbat) should take (when it starts and when it ends). For the day of Atonement Yahuah determined that the rest (Shabbat) should be kept from Evening to Evening. But that does not mean that all rest (Shabbat) shall be kept from evening to evening. That would be inductive reasoning which we mentioned in the beginning of this article, would lead us to error.
Yahuah spoke to Mosha, saying, “However on the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement: it shall be a set apart convocation to you, and you shall afflict yourselves; and you shall offer an offering made by fire to Yahuah. You shall do no kind of work in that same day; for it is a day of atonement, to make atonement for you before Yahuah your God. For whoever it is who shall not deny himself in that same day; shall be cut off from his people. Whoever it is who does any kind of work in that same day, that person I will destroy from among his people. You shall do no kind of work: it is a statute forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. It shall be a Sabbath of solemn rest for you, and you shall deny yourselves. In the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you shall keep your Sabbath.”
The Pharisees using inductive reasoning said that since it's written "from evening to evening, you shall keep your Sabbath" every 7th Day Shabbath shall be observed from Evening to Evening. Big mistake. We shall not add to the Scriptures!
You shall not add to the word which I command you, neither shall you take away from it, that you may keep the commandments of Yahuah your God which I command you.
I recommend you watch this video by Nehemiah Gordon, he explains what is a Pharisee.
What do we learn from the passage? We shall start to observe Atonement from Day (Light) 9 Evening until Day (Light) 10 Evening. Notice that Evening on the 9th Day does not start Day 10 as it would using the Evening to Evening day reckoning. We read that this appointed time starts on 9th Day (Light) Evening not on 10th Day (Light). If Day (Light) was reckoned from Evening to Evening, Yahuah would have said it starts on 10th evening. He did not. Let us not put words into the mouth of the Almighty!
The following is written by a Pharisee Rabbi on this topic. Clearly, he understands that starting in the 9th Day debunks the teachings of the Rabbis' Oral Torah (Oral Law) concerning the Evening to Evening Day reckoning. Also note, that he says the Day was observed by the Levities in the temple from the Morning.
The fact is that Rabbis of the Talmud no longer knew or would not acknowledge that in ancient times there was another mode of reckoning the day according to which the Evening preceding the tenth day still belongs to the ninth day. In the case of the Day of Atonement the law especially prescribes that the fast be observed in a new manner, covering part of the ninth and part of the tenth day...
In certain spheres of the population the older system continued to be in use, either exclusively or side by side with the newer system. Thus in the temple service the older system continued all through the time of the existence of the second temple, and there the day was reckoned from morning to morning...
In some circles or among some Jewish sects the older system continued and the Sabbath was observed from Saturday morning to Sunday morning...
Saturday - Not Friday Evening marked the entrance of the Sabbath. But the majority of the people, following the teachings of the Halakah, reckoned the day from evening to evening and the entrance of the Sabbath for them came after the sunset of Friday or on Friday evening...
- Rabbinic Essays (page 447-451)
Read more evidence that the Evening to Evening Day reckoning is from the Pharisees in my article titled: Evening to Evening - Pagan, Babylonian, Pharisaical Day Reckoning (20+ sources)
Passover and Unleavened bread
and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at evening.
In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the twenty first day of the month at evening.
Passover is kept from Evening to Evening because that's when it was kept first when the Israelites came out of the land of Egypt. Again, it is Yahuah who dictates how a feast should be kept. Yet that does not mean the Day is now reckoned from Evening to Evening. This is not a discussion about Day reckoning, that was dealt with in Genesis, this is about when and how this specific feast should be observed.
Let us also note, that according to the Evening to Evening Pharisee Day reckoning the fourteenth Day Evening should have started the 15th Day. Yet, we read that the Evening on day 14 belongs to Day 14. This again debunks the Evening to Evening theory.